You are able to take out your phone, take a picture of the perpetrator, and call 911.
When the police arrive, you give them the information that you witnessed, and three months later you get a subpoena to appear and testify in court.
The witness is not aware that this particular group has a history of going after witnesses who testify against them.
The witness' friend is aware of this reputation, and desperately tries to warn his friend about the dangers of testifying against this particular organization.
The aforementioned actions could also form the factual basis for the common law offense of obstruction of justice.
It is noteworthy what is included in the statute: the threat does not have to successfully coerce the person into not appearing or testifying, as just the act itself forms the basis for violation of the statute.
This man would be guilty of Dissuading a Victim under California Penal Code Section 136.1 PC, as he attempted to prevent her, a victim, from reporting a crime.
However, in another example a witness is set to testify in a trial involving a large-scale Identity Theft ring run by a notorious organized crime syndicate.
In the magistrates' court, the maximum penalty is six months' imprisonment and/or a fine to the statutory maximum.
In the Crown Court, the maximum penalty is five years' imprisonment and/or a fine.